Navalny was one of more than 1,600 people detained by police during demonstrations ahead of Putin's inauguration at Pushkinskaya Square in Moscow on May 5, but was released the next day.
Moscow's Tverskoy District Court convicted Navalny on charges of organizing an unauthorized rally and ordered him jailed for 30 days.
He was barred from running in the most recent election as a result and called for a boycott of the vote.
Navalny tweeted from the courtroom that he was sentenced simply for "getting out on the street of my city and saying: 'I'm not your slave, and I will never be".
The protests initiated by opposition leader Navalny, who was detained nearly immediately after the appearance at the rally, but later released until the hearing.
A verdict was expected from the Moscow court on Friday (May 18), but the case was adjourned for police witnesses to be called.
The anti-corruption campaigner, who has become Putin's most visible political foe, already has served several weeks-long jail terms for organizing other protests.
Almost 1,600 protesters were detained in 27 cities across Russian Federation at the anti-Putin protests called "He's not our Tsar", according to OVD-Info, an independent monitor that tracks arrests.
The court then launched into a second trial on a separate charge - refusing to comply with a police order - which carries a maximum sentence of 15 days.
Around one in 10 of those arrested were minors, according to OVD-Info, an independent monitor that tracks arrests.
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